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學術寫作中五種常見的逗號錯誤用法

2018 / 9 / 7

1909

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本期部落格的主題是學術寫作中五種常見的逗號錯誤用法。華樂思已發表過數篇關於逗號用法的文章,但這類問題仍時常發生,因此今天要來整理一下逗號用法的誤用情況。

 

1. 想傳達非必要資訊,卻未使用逗號

逗號的功能是隔開插入的補充非必要資訊,使用後不會影響句意。若去除插入的額外資訊後,句子意思保持不變,那麼此時逗號提供的是補充資訊,而不是必要資訊。

正確用法:

Kathy Chen, who won the writing contest, is in my class.

(句中必須使用逗號,因為who won the writing contest是用來額外補充關於Kathy的非必要資訊;暗指只有這一個Kathy Chen。)

不正確用法:

Kathy Chen who won the writing contest is in my class.

(應將逗號加在who won the writing contest前後,因為這個片語只是用來補充關於Kathy的非必要資訊。若句中出現的是重要資訊,便不須使用逗號。若句意指出有一位以上的Kathy Chen,那麼who won the writing contest則變成用來指稱Kathy Chen的必要資訊。)

 

2. 使用逗號傳達必要資訊

逗號的功能是隔開插入的補充非必要資訊,使用後不會影響句意。若某個資訊是表達句意的必要元素,您便不得使用逗號來提供這項必要資訊。

正確用法:

The student who won the writing contest is in my class.

(這裡不需使用逗號,因為讀者必須透過who won the writing contest才能理解句子的確切意思。)

不正確用法:

The student, who won the writing contest, is in my class.

(這裡不可使用逗號來隔開who won the writing contest,因為讀者必須透過who won the writing contest才能理解句子的確切意思;同時,這裡指的the student只有一位。)

 

3. 連接兩個獨立子句時,需在對等連接詞前面加上逗號

若使用對等連接詞來連接兩個獨立句子,應在對等連接詞前方加上逗號,對等連接詞如for、and、nor、but、or、yet、so。

正確用法:

I wanted to go to the beach, but I couldn’t afford to pay for a hotel room.

(I wanted to go to the beach與I couldn’t afford to pay for a hotel room皆是完整的獨立句子,因此使用對等連接詞來連接這兩個句子時,連接詞前面必須加上逗號。)

正確用法:

I wanted to go to the beach but couldn’t afford to pay for a hotel room.

(I wanted to go to the beach是完整的獨立句子,但couldn’t afford to pay for a hotel room則不是,因此使用對等連接詞來連接兩者時,對等連接詞前面不須加上逗號。)

不正確用法:

I wanted to go to the beach but I couldn’t afford to pay for a hotel room.

(I wanted to go to the beach與I couldn’t afford to pay for a hotel room皆是完整的獨立句子,因此使用對等連接詞來連接兩者時,連接詞前面必須加上逗號。)

  • 註:完整的句子必須有主詞、動詞。

 

4. 引介用語後方未加上逗號

逗號也有助於引介開場白,出現的位置是在引介開場的字詞、片語、子句後方。
《例一》

正確用法:

Furthermore, everyone must wait thirty minutes after eating before they go swimming.

(Furthermore是引介開場詞,後方應加上逗號。)

正確用法:

From his position in the top of the tree, John could see the neighbor’s dog chewing on the children’s missing Frisbee.

(From his position in the top of the tree是引介開場片語,後方應加上逗號。)

不正確用法:

Furthermore everyone must wait thirty minutes after eating before they go swimming.

(Furthermore是引介開場詞,後方應加上逗號。)

《例二》

正確用法:

Even though he knew that his brother would be angry over the lost Frisbee, John wasn’t brave enough to go get it.

(Even though he knew that his brother would be angry over the lost Frisbee是引介開場子句,後方應加上逗號。)

不正確用法:

Risking his life over a Frisbee, just didn’t seem worth it.

(Risking his life over a Frisbee是句子主詞,後方不應加上逗號。)

 

5. 逗號拼接句(comma splice

連接兩個獨立子句時,亦即指連接兩個不相關的句子,若使用的是逗號,而不是句號或分號,便是犯了逗號拼接句的錯誤。使用轉折語時,例如 however、therefore、moreover、nevertheless、furthermore,最容易犯下逗號拼接句的錯誤。這類連接副詞看起來像是對等連接詞,例如for、and、nor、or、but、yet、so,但使用方式並不相同。因此,除了將這類轉折語替換成對等連接詞以外,也可以使用句號或分號來將轉折語隔開。

 

正確用法:I had planned to enroll over the summer; however, I couldn’t find any classes to fulfill my major requirements.

(However不是對等連接詞,因此前面要加上分號。)

 

正確用法:I had planned to enroll over the summer, but I couldn’t find any classes to fulfill my major requirements.

(But是對等接詞,因此可以使用逗號來連接兩個獨立句子。)

 

不正確用法:I had planned to enroll over the summer, however, I couldn’t find any classes to fulfill my major requirements.

(However不是對等連接詞,因此不能只使用逗號來連接兩個獨立句子。)

 

不正確用法:I; however, couldn’t find any classes to fulfill my major requirements.

(However並未將兩個獨立句子連接起來,因此這裡不須使用分號。)

 

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