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助動詞Should、Could與Would之間有什麼差異?

2017 / 12 / 20

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提問:「我不太清楚should、could與would之間在使用上有何不同。是否能請您幫忙釐清這幾個助動詞的差異?」

—國立中興大學環境工程系碩士生

回答:

對許多非以英文為母語的人來說,should、could和would確實難以分辨,希望藉由本期電子報能協助您釐清這三個助動詞的使用時機。

 

當內文涉及建議時,可使用should與shouldn’t

 

當句子的目的在於請求或給予建議時,可以使用should與shouldn’t表達。例句如下:

 

A:I’ve had a really bad headache for the past week.
B:That’s not good – you should go to the doctor.

 

A:I want to write more on my paper, but I don’t know how.
B:First of all, you shouldn’t spend so much time playing games on the computer. You should block daily writing time and join a writing group instead!

 

A:I had a fight with my Professor. What should I do?
B:Hmm… I think you should call her and tell her you’re sorry.

 

當內容談到以往的能力,可使用could與couldn’t

 

Could與couldn’t分別是「can」與「can’t」的過去式。例句如下:

 

  • When I was younger, I could run a mile in 7 minutes. Now it takes me 20 minutes!
  • Yesterday, I couldn’t find my wallet anywhere – but this morning I found it.
  • Last year, he couldn’t speak English very well, but now he can.

 

當內容談到未來可能性,可用could表達。

 

以下例句中的could,目的在於表達未來的可能性:

 

A:Do you have any ideas for our publicity campaign?

B:Yes, I’ve got a few ideas. I could put advertisements on Facebook and Google. We could also give out pamphlets in our neighborhood. Maybe John could even contact local TV stations.

 

若想得體的提出要求,也可用could表達。例句如下:

 

  • Could you please open the window? It’s hot in here.
  • Could you turn the music down? Thanks.
  • Could you make 10 copies of this report, please?

 

當內容談到不實際或難得一見的情境時,可用would與wouldn’t表達。例句如下:

 

  • If I were the president of my company, I would make a lot of changes.
  • If people were more generous, there wouldn’t be so much poverty in the world today.
  • She would travel around the world if she had more vacation time.

 

附註:這類語境中,would常簡化為「’d」。

If I were the president of my company, I’d make a lot of changes.

 

若想委婉的提出建議,可使用「would you like…」。

 

以下的例句皆使用would you like來提出委婉的建議:

 

A:Would you like anything to drink?
B:A soda would be great. Thanks!

 

A:Would you like to join us for dinner?
B:I’d love to, but I actually have other plans tonight.

 

A:Would you like to see some pictures from my vacation?
B:Sure!

 

請注意,在should、could與would後請勿加上「to」。

 

錯誤:You shouldn’t to smoke.
正確:You shouldn’t smoke.

 

錯誤:We could to order pizza tonight.
正確:We could order pizza tonight.

 

錯誤:I would to buy a new car if I had the money.
正確:I would buy a new car if I had the money.

 

希望以上內容對您有所助益。欲了解學術論文編修或翻譯服務,可以造訪華樂思網站,電子郵件editing@editing.hk或致電 3176-6026,將由專人為您服務。

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